Cold Allergy generally known as the allergic reactions to the open areas of the body (face, hands and so on. P.), Appearing after a stay at a low temperature. This kind of discomfort experienced by about 30% of people. Pathology is observed in all age groups but mainly makes itself felt after 20-30 years. Women are more vulnerable than men. Activation of diseases naturally occurs in winter, during the freezing air temperatures, but suffer from the cold and actions can be summer.
What factors trigger the disease?
As is known to counteract allergens body produces biologically active substances - mediators, particularly histamine. Forming in a large amount, it causes histamine typical allergic reactions (vasodilatation, skin redness, and others.). With respect to the stimulus in the form of cold, some experts believe that histamine generates monstrosity (cells located in the skin), others associated with activation of histamine generation cryoglobulins proteins.
Different people have an allergy to cold occurs at different temperatures. One wash with cold water sufficiently, others similar reaction occurs at a temperature below -28 ° C. In most cold allergy manifested starting with temperature -4,4 ° C and lower. Development of the disease and contributes to strong wind moist air. Sometimes disease symptoms are felt only when the man with the cold gets into heat.
In addition to cold air may cause allergy such a draft, a sharp change in air temperature in downward contact with cold water, cold bed cold food (int. H. Cream) and drink etc. Increased sensitivity to cold is formed in a weakened immunity. Symptoms of cold allergy, so signal a health problem.
The body's defenses break down a variety of factors. Leading among them are illnesses - colds, infections (especially measles, mycoplasma pneumonia, mumps, rubella, infectious mononucleosis), chronic diseases of the nasopharynx (tonsillitis, sinusitis, sinusitis). The immune system is weakened by the diseased liver, kidneys, pancreas, thyroid gland, disorders of the digestive system (cholecystitis, chronic gastritis, ulcers), intestinal dysbiosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, a blood cancer, inflammation of the reproductive organs in women. Cold allergy develops in the cavities, the introduction into the body helminths (worms).
For the birth of the disease has a long-term use of antibiotics, muscle relaxants, opioids, ACE inhibitors. Favor the development of the disease a number of polysaccharides, contrast agents for X-rays, ultraviolet rays, exercise, foods that stimulate the release of histamine (fish, tomatoes, egg white, strawberry, chocolate).
Cold allergy often faced by people who have a similar problem faced relatives, as well as patients suffering from other types of allergies (pollen and house dust, atopic dermatitis). Children cold allergy in most cases is the next stage of a food allergy.
Local allergic reaction
Symptomatology of allergy to the cold develops in a certain sequence. In adults, primarily affects the hands. Just a few minutes after exposure to cold, they become dry and stiffen, scratching, covered by a dense punctate rash. Its color can be whitish, pale pink, bright red. Points tend to merge into patches up to 10-15 cm in diameter. The affected area may also cover areas that are not cold worked.
For women, in addition to the hands, legs suffer poorly insulated - the area behind the knees and inner thighs. In children rash and redness, usually localized on the face (cheeks, chin, around the nose and lips). Within half an hour after the appearance of the rash on reddened areas being felt burning and itching, sometimes peeling. These effects are caused by the action of histamine on nerve endings.
Furthermore, rashes appear on the skin are round, pale red blisters clear liquid inside. Their diameter is in the range 1-20 cm. These formations also expand and merge and create discomfort in the form of burning and itching.
The warmth in the cold spasm vessels begins to grow gradually and after half an hour and a rash and blisters disappear, leaving no trace. But sometimes a rash and swelling kept a week or even longer. Cold allergy can bother a few weeks, a few months, the entire cold season, or even many years.
Systemic allergic reaction
Local allergy can be transformed into the systemic (whole body infestation). In this case, it required medical assistance.
In the system embodiment generally lying body temperature - up to 37,5 ° C. Frequent jumps to 39-40 ° C. General weakness, muscle aches, headache, chills. Eyes turn red, itchy, the skin around them become swollen, watery eyes worried. Often joins cutting pain in the eyes, increasing in bright daylight. Because of mucosal lesions appear nasal itching and nasal mucosa, sneezing, runny nose long, throat tickle. As a consequence, difficulty breathing.
With further progression of disease occurs angioedema. Swollen cheeks, lips, tongue, sinuses, eyelids, mucous membranes. Swelling dense, and therefore, after pressing a finger leaves no traces. Distribution of edema on the neck is fraught with narrowing of the airways, followed by oxygen starvation.
Swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx provoking a hoarse voice and a barking cough. In a worst case develops dyspnea inspiratory - difficult to inhale air. Covering bronchi, swelling causes bronchospasm. Edema can go and on the lungs, which is the life-threatening condition.
Increasing shortness of breath and the accompanying lack of oxygen in tissues causing skin and mucous membranes cyanosis. Salvo releases histamine and related compounds reduce blood pressure, which in turn provokes nausea, dizziness, tinnitus. When the oxygen starvation of the brain becomes the acute loss of consciousness occurs.
If the blood pressure is reduced to zero, there comes an anaphylactic shock. In agonizing state manifested convulsions, the involuntary exit of feces and urine. Though very rare, but sometimes fatal. To rescue an unconscious patient requires resuscitation.
Types of cold allergy
The most common form of allergy to the cold - cold urticaria, dubbed by manifestations resembling nettle burns (swelling, blisters). Urticaria that appears every cold season is called recurrent. Rash, the limited contact area with the cold - reflex urticaria. If the disease is inherited, it is called familial cold urticaria. This kind of allergy is shown suspended in 0.5-3 hours, the symptoms often appear only in a day - and a half.
If redness and blisters are accompanied by peeling, itching, which can lead to skin damage, dealing with dermatitis Kholodov. Cold erythema characterized by severe pain in the reddened areas.
Prolonged pain in the eyes, intense tearing, periocular swelling - symptoms of cold conjunctivitis. Abundant cold, disappearing in a warm room - evidence of cold rhinitis. Swelling of the throat and shortness of breath until bronchospasm - cold asthma. Typical for asthmatics and individuals who are prone to pneumonia.
Diseases with similar symptoms
Several cold allergy symptoms similar to the symptoms of colds, ARI ARI (a runny nose, watery eyes), dermatitis, rubella, food allergy (rash). But unlike respiratory viral diseases, this pathology is accompanied by a high temperature mainly when the leaves on the system level. If the damage is local, there is rarely a fever. But worried about severe itching in the throat, ears, and nose.
Allergy to the cold also can be taken as nasopharyngitis (inflammation of the lining of the nose and pharynx), rosacea (redness of the skin and the appearance of rashes on it).
Cold allergy home remedies
The most simple and accessible diagnosis of allergy to the cold is held by a piece of ice. In the presence of the disease on the skin of the place where he was to make, after 15 minutes, red, itching, blisters. In the case of a family of cold urticaria, such effects appear after several hours.
More in-depth studies carried out in the laboratory, and reveal the inherent disease-specific proteins. These include cold antibodies, cryoglobulins.
Specialized professionals for diagnosis and treatment of allergy to the cold is the allergist, you should also consult a doctor-immunologist. But the disease often being a symptom of another disease that destroys the body's immune system, often requires the wide survey to identify the root factors of its development and its elimination.
Immediate medical intervention requires the appearance of the first symptoms of shortness of breath. If the glottis edema is so narrowed that there is no opportunity to enter the endotracheal tube, resorting to surgery.
To get rid of cold allergy symptoms yourself, you need to warm up (take a warm shower or bath, drink warm tea, well bundle up or hide). Appeared runny nose and watery eyes, can be eliminated by massaging the cheeks and nose.
However, it should be noted that antihistamines are peculiar side effects of some drugs themselves can trigger allergies. But the main drawback antiallergic agents - to get used to it the body, forcing them to take the time. A break in the reception fraught that upon contact with the cold allergy is shown again.
Antihistamines have a negative impact on the nervous system, kidneys, liver, disrupt metabolism. Some of them have a soporific effect and therefore pose a danger to people who perform work requiring concentration and reaction speed.
Bronchospasm eliminates using bronchodilators. In severe cases, resorted to plasmapheresis - blood cleansing of cryoglobulins and glucocorticosteroids. Applied also some immunosuppressants. Innovative treatment - administration of lymphocytes isolated from the blood of a patient.
I worked well with cold allergy reception Enterosgel sorbent. It effectively cleanses the body of toxic byproducts allergic reactions, allergy significantly easier. At the same time for the body, Enterosgel is completely harmless, for example taking it even babies from the first days of life.
Natural antihistamines - red beet, and sunflower seeds. In winter, they are encouraged to eat in large quantities and in any form.
Effectively act fresh juice from beets, celery. Birch sap eliminates allergic swelling. Juice magnolia, if it wipe the affected area, relieves itching.
Relieves allergy symptoms decoction of dried raspberry roots. In order to prevent it should start drinking for 2 months prior to the sub-zero temperatures. If you develop shortness of breath and drops, may be used alcohol tincture of the fresh leaves and green walnut skin. In the presence of cold eye, conjunctivitis washed and put them on the lotions of decoctions of herbs, particularly effective among which differs cornflower blue (flowers).
Well helps mumie solution: 1 g per 1 liter of boiling water for receiving inside and 1 g per 100 ml of boiling water for lubrication for the skin. Skin redness, dryness, scaling, itching also removes the solution from young shoots on pine oil. Insisting in a dark place for five months, it is rubbed into the skin.
Compresses to areas affected are prepared from pounded blueberries. Itching and dryness of the skin perfectly remove emulsion made from celandine herbs, peppermint leaves, marigold flowers burdock root in sunflower oil. Cold allergy and treating the bath with a decoction of pine needles.
Prevention of cold allergy
Among the most important preventive measures - protection from hypothermia, which is achieved by warming the body. Underwear should be cotton or linen (wool and synthetics contribute to the development of allergies), the head is protected by a warm hat, a neck - warm scarf, hand - mittens, will not prevent more tights and socks. Hood will cover not only from the cold but also from wind gusts. Clothes got wet should be possible to change quickly dry, and then warm up.
Before going out the open areas of the body can not wash with soap because soap dries out the skin, removing from it formed a protective film.
20-30 minutes prior to the anticipated exposure to cold hands and face should be coated with a special protective cream or any fat cream. A good effect is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins badger fat. Moisturizers contain moisture, and therefore will only aggravate the situation. On lips is applied chapstick. You can not lick your lips in the cold.
Guard against this disease can be, if possible, to avoid all sources of cold - cold water, cold products, cold reservoirs.
The heat capacity of the body increases the regular meals and eating foods rich in Vitamin F (omega-3 fatty acids) - oil-rich sea fish, olive oil, nuts. 40 minutes before breakfast is recommended to eat a tablespoon of the fat badger. Among other things, this product strengthens the immune system. At the same time remove from the diet should be foods that irritate the gastrointestinal tract, for example, smoked and heavily roasted meat.
Help to resist the cold warming (not firewater!) Drinks. They increase the temperature of the body and the disease or symptoms persist or are reduced. Therefore, the hot tea in a thermos can really help in a critical situation.
The street should breathe through the nose, the first breath should be shallow and infrequent, and only after adaptation to low temperatures can breathe more deeply. A good preventive measure is to instill in the nose antihistamine drops. If signs of cold allergy are still evident and amplified, it is advisable to go to a warm place, or at least to reduce the length of stay in uncomfortable temperature conditions.
In the prevention of allergies in the cold can not do without hardening - rubdown, pouring cold water. Fit the body to the cold summer should be. Temperature is gradually lowered (to 10 ° C), not more than 1 ° C. With a strong allergy hardening can lead to anaphylactic shock.
The fundamental role played by the prevention of cold allergy stimulants - chronic diseases and infections, as well as stress. It is equally important to avoid exposure to other allergens.
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