Showing posts with label Allergic Disease. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Allergic Disease. Show all posts

May 13, 2017

Anaphylactic Shock - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Remedies

Anaphylactic shock - this is one of the most dangerous types of the course of an allergic reaction. It can develop in response to contact with any allergen, it all depends on individual predisposition. An anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis) is a severe allergic shock. It can be triggered, for example, by insect venom (from bees, wasps, etc.), foodstuffs (peanuts, celery etc.) or remedies (such as antibiotics). In the worst case, respiratory and cardio-vascular arrest occur. An anaphylactic shock must, therefore, be immediately treated by a doctor!

Anaphylactic shock develops in time from a few seconds to a few hours after contact with an allergen in the body. It depends on many factors, including the mode of administration of the allergen, but it is generally accepted view is that the faster developing an allergic reaction, so it is more difficult and the worse the prognosis for recovery, especially in the untimely assistance.

Anaphylactic shock: Details

The term anaphylactic shock refers to the severest form of an allergic reaction of the immediate type. This means that the symptoms develop within a very short time after contact with the allergen (allergen).

Anaphylactic shock: What happens in the body

On the first contact with a potential allergen, the organism forms specific antibodies against it. On the next contact, the immune system can react within a few minutes with a violent shock reaction (anaphylactic shock): the blood vessels in the arms and legs expand, and the wall of the vessels becomes more permeable. As a result, water flows out of the vessels into the interstices between individual cells and organs. Both together - the dilatation of the vessels and the liquid flow - let the blood pressure sag.
The body tries to counteract: messengers from the group of catecholamines (like adrenaline) are distributed. Among other things, they are supposed to drive the blood pressure back upwards by crowding the vessels. This is fatally prevented by other media (mediators) released upon contact between antigen and antibody (including histamine). In addition, the heart beat (tachycardia) is accelerated in the attempt to keep a sufficient blood flow and thus the oxygen supply of all body regions in motion.

Anaphylactic shock: Danger to life!

The described processes in the body trigger symptoms which can reach the entire body (skin, respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, digestive system) within a very short time and become life-threatening. Anaphylactic shock is, therefore, an emergency and requires immediate medical assistance!

Anaphylactic shock: Symptoms

Depending on the severity of the symptoms, medical professionals differ in four severity levels of anaphylaxis:
  • Severity: An allergic shock in its simplest form is associated with slight general reactions ( dizziness, headache, etc.) and skin reactions ( itching, reddening with heat, nettle, etc.). There is no acute danger to life, but the further course must be carefully monitored.
  • Severity: If there is a blood pressure drop, accelerated heartbeat (tachycardia), mild dyspnea, and gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting), there is an allergic shock of the second degree.
  • Severity: the Anaphylactic shock of the third degree is characterized by the fact that, in addition to the above-mentioned symptoms, spasm of the respiratory tract (bronchospasm) and shock occur. Rarely, there is also a laryngeal swelling (Quincke edema) with air scarring.
  • Severity: In extreme cases, anaphylactic shock leads to the respiratory and cardiac arrest.

Anaphylactic shock: Causes and risk factors

The cause of anaphylactic shock is an immune reaction of the body. Anaphylactic shock is an allergic reaction. Contact with a specific substance (allergen) causes sensitization in the body. 

This means that the allergen, which is actually harmless to the body (for example, peanuts) is suddenly seen as a threat and is countered by the immune reaction. 

Normally the immune reaction takes place in pathogens such as viruses, bacteria or fungi, which are actually a threat to the body and are therefore combated. The actually harmless stimuli of the allergens are countered by an often violent immune reaction of the body. 

Anaphylactic shock can be caused by various allergy triggers (allergens), for example by:
Medicines (such as painkillers, antibiotics, iodine-containing x-ray contrast agents)
  • Insects (eg bees, wasps, bumble bees)
  • Foodstuffs (such as peanuts, walnuts, milk, soya, shellfish, fish)
  • cosmetics
  • Naturlatex (eg in rubber gloves and balloons)

Anaphylactic shock: Diagnosis

An allergy which can cause a life-threatening anaphylactic shock can be found in various ways because it can sometimes be very difficult to determine the true cause of an allergy. 

Firstly, the history of the patient (anamnesis) is an important factor. Those affected most often know best when and in what context allergic reactions have occurred. 

Various allergy tests (for example, skin and blood tests), which are carried out by the general practitioner or by specialists, can provide insight into the allergen. 

In anaphylactic shock, however, this possibility of diagnosis is not present. The severe physical reaction and possibly taken medicines distort the test results. This is why it is so important to see a doctor even at the slightest signs of an allergic reaction. 

However, some allergies occur particularly frequently and are therefore easier to determine. 

Foods such as peanuts, eggs or seafood, certain medicines ( penicillin, rheumatoid arthritis), insect pests, pollen, and insects often cause anaphylactic shock. If a parent is suffering from an allergy, it is also more likely to get it.

Anaphylactic shock: Treatment and therapy

Anaphylactic shock is treated individually. If the condition of the patient is acute, all first aid measures must first be initiated. This includes the elimination or elimination of the cause of the shock (allergens). 

For example, in a bee sting, the sting, should be removed as an allergy trigger as soon as possible. In addition, the affected person must immediately be placed in the so-called shock position. 

In this case, the patient has to lie on his back while the legs are placed upwards. In addition, the patient should be stored warm in order to avoid chilling. 

Regular pulmonary control is important to avoid circulatory shock. In a severe anaphylactic shock, a doctor will administer the remedy adrenaline, which causes the mucous membranes to decay and stabilize the circulatory system. 

Anaphylactic shock: What the doctor does

If it has not already been done, the alerted doctor will stop the intake of allergen, bring the patient into a shock and administer appropriate remedies to the symptoms of the shock (such as adrenaline). In addition, the patient receives oxygen as well as via an infusion a volume replacement solution to bring the "sagged" blood pressure up again. If an anaphylactic shock has triggered a laryngeal swelling with dyspnoea, the doctor can intubate (ie push a "breathing tube" into the air tube) or as a last measure to make an air tube section (emergency coniotomy). In case of cardiac arrest, the patient is resuscitated.

Anaphlylactic shock: Prevention

The best prevention against anaphylactic shock is its prevention. There should be no anaphylactic shock. This is why precaution is of such enormous importance. Already at the first signs of allergies, a doctor should be contacted immediately, who will carry out further examinations. 

If clarified, what causes the allergic reaction, this substance is to be avoided. This is, of course, very difficult with pollen or insect bites. However, there are different ways of desensitization. This is a special immunotherapy, in which the body slowly learns to no longer fight the allergen, but to tolerate it. 

Doctors also recommend an emergency kit. This should contain a so-called antihistamine. In an emergency, such a remedy will help to avoid an acute anaphylactic shock. However, tablets are not recommended for this because of the possibly occurring swallowing difficulties. 

Instead, an Asthma spray, a liquid remedy , or an adrenaline injector should be available. Whatever is best for whom should be agreed with the treating physician.

Anaphylactic shock: disease course and prognosis

Anaphylactic shock can already be noticed by symptoms shortly after contact with the allergen (allergen) by a person who is hypersensitive to intravenous remedies(syringe, infusion), can show the first signs of anaphylaxis within five minutes. In insect bites, anaphylactic shock occurs after about ten to fifteen minutes, and in foodstuffs about half an hour after exposure.

Even if patients with anaphylactic shock receive the right help quickly and the symptoms improve rapidly, monitoring in the intensive care unit is necessary for at least 24 hours.

Tags: anaphylactic shock treatment, pictures,  pathophysiology,  first aid, definition, mild anaphylaxis, anaphylactic meaning, anaphylaxis vs anaphylactic shock
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Sun Allergy (Photosensitivity) - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, Home Remedies

Sunlight - a real benefit for the all. The sun not only warms us but also stimulates the synthesis of one of the most important biologically active substances - of vitamin D, activates the metabolism, strengthens the immune system and improves mood.

However, sun does not brings joy for everyone - there are people who, even after a short stay under the sun begins full-fledged allergic reaction on the skin with the appropriate manifestations: rash, itching, swelling, and redness.

Allergy to the sun, or, as they prefer to call her doctors photodermatosis (in some books, you can also come across the name foto dermatic) is a disease which is based on increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. The disease is quite common: they are, in a more or less pronounced degree, suffers every fifth inhabitant of our planet. Already with the first rays of spring sun exacerbated the disease, and sometimes does not abate until late autumn.
Modern man, educated and erudite, but far from medicine, often asks, "Does it happen on the sun allergy?" Of course, the sun allergy inherently allergy is not: the sunlight does not contain protein and can be an allergen in the forward sense of the word. No allergic to ultraviolet light in a direct sense. However, reacts with certain substances in the skin thickness (photodermatosis endogenous) or on its surface (an exogenous photodermatosis), ultraviolet rays can provoke skin reactions such allergic.

Cosmetics can be dangerous!

Often sun allergy occurs when using a variety of cosmetics - creams, deodorants, eau de toilette, lotions, sunscreens and even ointments for sunburn! The reason skin reaction - in certain chemical compounds that are part of such agents and react with ultraviolet sunlight. These include not only phenol, mercury compounds, para-aminobenzoic, salicylic acid and boric acid, but also very attractive at first glance, natural ingredients: juices dill and parsley, essential oils of rose, sandalwood, hypericum, bergamot, musk, derivatives of vitamin A and fatty acids.

Food provocateur sun allergy

Exogenous cause sun allergy may be eating foods with a photosensitizing effect. In particular, these products include all citrus fruits, so do not eat before going to the beach or while resting on it orange, tangerine, lemon tea. Strong photosensitizer - St. John's wort herb, have a photosensitizing action of alcoholic beverages, figs, jam from rose petals, spicy seasonings, foods with a high content of food additives (flavor enhancers, colorants, stabilizers, etc.)

Remedies that are not compatible with the sun

May become the cause of photodermatitis and some drugs: tetracycline antibiotics, sulfonamides, heart medications, certain NSAIDs (including aspirin!), Diuretics, barbiturates, antidepressants, cytostatics, drugs against allergies and oral contraceptives.

Many cosmetic manipulations (peeling, peeling) break the skin barrier and can also become a cause photodermatitis. Similar effects have tattoos and tattooing. After deep cosmetic surgery or visiting tattoo parlors need to protect the skin from sunlight as long as it does not recover fully, so often cosmetologists, dermatologists and tattooist recommend customers to move manipulation, coupled with deep intervention into the skin on malosolnechnye months .

Allergy to the sun and the pool :- Often the cause of exogenous photodermatitis becomes a swim in the outdoor pool - a popular entertainment that is available in many hotels, even located on the sea coast. Indeed, in the pool water is cleaned, quiet and has a shallow place where it is safe to splash even the youngest travelers, but we must remember that in the closed reservoir water will inevitably have to be decontaminated - to this end, use cheap and effective bleach or other, more expensive, but no less dangerous chemicals, which, even in minimal quantities, but are deposited on the skin of swimmers. People prone to sun allergies, they can also react with ultraviolet light and provoke fotodermatit.

The endogenous (internal) photodermatosis 

Reason endogenous allergy to the sun lies in the various violations of the general metabolism and the immune system. These cause many chronic diseases of the liver, colon, endocrine glands, systemic connective tissue disease, the blood disease. Fotodermatit may even provoke a lack of certain vitamins.

Who gets photodermatitis?

People, because of the nature of the skin structure or lifestyle is prone to allergies to the sun, are at risk of photodermatosis, they need to be particularly attentive to their condition, avoid sunlight, responsible approach to the selection of sunscreen.

The risk factor includes 

Young children: they have not yet sufficiently mature body's defense mechanisms, and the skin is thin, tender and vulnerable, are allergic to the sun in a child - a frequent phenomenon;

during pregnancy: hormonal changes that occur in the body of the future mother, become a cause of increased sensitivity to UV light, which is manifested spots and often - photodermatitis;

people who frequent tanning bed - in the artificial tanning of the skin ultraviolet radiation is much stronger;

frequent customers tattoo studios - tattooing and tattoo often used cadmium-containing paints, which differ powerful photosensitizing effect.

Symptoms of photodermatosis

How does an allergy to the sun? The intensity of the symptoms and the rate of their occurrence can be different and depend on the individual, people with high sensitivity to sunlight may feel discomfort in the very first minutes of exposure to the sun. In people with decreased sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet photodermatitis first manifestations occur after a longer period of from 18 hours to three days.
The main symptoms of allergies to the sun the following:
  • redness on exposed skin;
  • peeling - usually the face and décolleté, at least - the hands and feet;
  • rashes on the skin as hives;
  • the appearance of spots on the skin of different sizes - from small dots that resemble freckles to large spots;
  • intolerable itching, burning;
  • swelling of affected areas;
  • the appearance of pustules, if the infection has entered into the scratches.
Just as it looks fotodermatit manifest and sunburn, but sunburn arises from the exposed skin overheating, there is no rash, burning sensation at first, and itching - later, a few days later, when burnt skin starts to peel off. Visual symptoms of allergy to the sun can be seen in the photo.

Remedies and prevention photodermatitis

At the first manifestations of allergy to the sun, you need to go into the shade or go into the room. Of course, it is recommended as soon as possible to see a doctor who knows for sure how to treat photodermatosis, but if this is not possible, the discomfort can be alleviated with the help of proven folk remedies.

First aid for fotodermatit :- A skin lesion can be applied fresh cabbage leaves, lubricate the skin juice of aloe, cucumber, or watermelon. Well relieves itching and pain of apple cider vinegar and honey skin lubrication helps to prevent painful blisters. Exhibit excellent analgesic effect compresses the chilled strong tea leaves. Cold marigold decoctions series and possess anti-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic effect.

Among pharmacy first aid is to provide a nicotinic acid (vitamin PP), phenomenon effectively removes calcium chloride - classical antiallergic agent; methyluracyl and zinc ointment.

Remedies photodermatitis :- Sun Allergy - a sign of a serious malfunction of the immune system, so effective treatment of allergy to the sun means primarily an in-depth examination and consultation of several doctors: dermatologist, allergist, physician generalists, sometimes - an endocrinologist and immunologist. After questioning and survey experts can identify the factors and assumptions trigger the beginning of a pathological reaction to sunlight. Based on the reasons for the doctor prescribes, than to treat sun allergies - treatment program is always built individually. 

Usually, the doctor prescribes an ointment from allergies to the sun, which helps to quickly relieve unpleasant symptoms, accelerates the recovery of damaged skin and ensures its protection. Often required and tablets from an allergy to the sun, which will help to suppress the abnormal immune response. In addition to specific drugs can be assigned physiotherapeutic procedures, massage, reflexology. When properly selected treatment photodermatitis unpleasant symptoms disappear quickly, but that does not mean that as soon as there will come relief treatment can be interrupted. The lasting effect will bring a regular treatment and prevention courses, not only in acute but also in winter.

Prevention of  photodermatitis (Sun Allergy)

  • The skin should be protected from sunlight clothing (preferably of natural fabrics light) and face - wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses.
  • Going out into the street, try to stay in the shade, sunbathing only a tent, try not to be on the street in the pre- and afternoon hours when the sun is particularly active.
  • Eat more foods rich in calcium - it weakens allergic reactions, do not forget about the live fermented milk products, as is often fotodermatit - this is one of the manifestations of intestinal dysbiosis.
  • Women at risk for photodermatosis, it is undesirable to do a hydrating mask for the face based on strawberries, tomatoes, and currants.
  • In the summer you need to use sunscreen, and for those who are already faced with photodermatitis, as well as representatives of vulnerable groups - Caucasians, infants, young children, such protection factor should be at least 50. Apply sunscreen needed 20 minutes before how to get out in the sun.
  • After bathing it is necessary to wipe it dry, and relax in the shade: the water droplets as lenses refract the sun's rays, causing burning and increased sensitivity of the skin to the sun.
Sun Allergy or Photosensitivity is extremely unpleasant phenomenon, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, responsible observance preventive measures very soon manage to overcome this problem and forget about it.

Tags: sun allergy face, sun allergy cream, lupus sun rash, sun rash treatment, lupus rash after sun exposure pictures, itchy skin after sun exposure no rash, sun hives
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